The word “other” has been defined as something that is “used to refer to a person or thing that is different or distinct from one already mentioned or known about” or “Alternative of two” such as “the other side of the road” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017).

‘Other’ can be viewed as a negative connotation, becoming inverse especially when used in the context of people. For example, Donald Trump’s statement about Mexican’s being “drug dealers, rapists and criminals” because they aren’t like him (John Miller, 2016). This was based solely on the fact that they were not “American’s” due to their different living-style. This further suggests that “othering” people is generated by the understanding of oneself and recognising ones culture as normal and standard. Does this then set minorities into the “other” category automatically? And if it does, who is the standard?

When you think about the whole spectrum of humanity, who is the least likely to be oppressed? The heterosexual white male. Throughout history, women have been portrayed in ways which western males idealise them; sexually available labourers. John Berger, author of the book “Ways of Seeing” (1972), highlights this by suggesting that women are taught to learn how they are looked at and internalise this expectation that they are a spectacle. It also incorporates the “male gaze” briefly. The male gaze has been described as “depicting the world and women in visual arts and literature from a masculine and heterosexual point of view” (‘Male Gaze’, 2017). Typically, the male gaze has been connected to power because it is able to objectify women into being studied unconsciously. An example of the male gaze would be (Newton, 1981).


Newton photographing two models and while his wife of 32 years glares into the camera holding a fed up look on her face (Newton, 1981).

McCord (2016) focuses on the fact that Newton’s work has been linked to the portrayal of confident and assertive women, however, it is evidently clear that she the model is unintentionally eager to please him while he actively observes her.

To go against the “male gaze”, a new hashtag has recently been born. #Girlgaze, “How girls see the world” (Ashley, 2016). The hashtag presents and uplifts female photographers photographing other female subjects to almost take back control and show the difference between the female and male gaze. They also allow ethnicity to play a part as they support black female photographers a great deal because of the lack of diversity there is within the creative industry as a whole.

Cindy Sherman is also another artist that battles against the male gaze. In fact, Sherman produced all her work around the idea of self portraiture. She explores into a number of different forms of identities to demonstrate the possibility there is within existence. Her recreations include historical figures to analysing gender types, she would create stereotypical photographs and allow the audience to focus on the constant positioning of herself as a woman (Sherman, 1977-1980).


Sherman playing against the idea of the male gaze by appearing sexually available and poise (Sherman, 1977-1980).



Ashley, M. (2016) [Twitter] 16 October. Available at: (Accessed: 17 November 2017).

Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin Classics.

John Miller (2016) Clip #1: Trump Calls Mexican’s Rapists. Available at: (Accessed: 15 November 2017).

‘Male Gaze’ (2017) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 16 November 2017).

McCord, B. (2016) Dazed Digital. Available at: (Accessed: 16 November 2017).

Newton, H. (1981) Self Portrait with Wife and Models. Available at: (Accessed/downloaded: 17 November 2017).

Oxford Dictionaries (2017) Other. Available at: (Accessed: 17 November 2017).

Sherman, C. (1977-1980) Untitled Film Stills. Available at: (Accessed/downloaded: 19 November 2017).



Todays task consisted of visiting a photography gallery. Whether that be the gallery in Greenwich or the Louvre in Paris, we needed to document what we saw, what we liked and our overall thoughts.

I saw this as an opportunity to visit the Photographers gallery and fortunately, it was conveniently close to where I worked. For this visit, I wanted to explore deeper into the exhibitions I saw and question every aspect. As Lucy Soutter (2007) poses the question; “What is the difference between an art photograph and a designer handbag?”. Many people stated that an art photograph could hold a certain “aesthetic” and be considered “more precious than a mass produced fashion accessory” (Soutter 2016). Another argument was photography documents “social and political truths” whereas a handbag is only worth what you are willing to pay for it. This question has the ability to distinguish interests and help highlight whether you identify more with fashion culture or documenting truth.

The Photographers gallery provided me with artist Wim Wenders; a photographer who delved into instant photography before it became commercialised. His exhibition was spread out onto two floors because of the extent of polaroids he included. He also displayed a short film shot, directed and narrated by himself about the backstory of certain polaroids. It revealed his struggle between living and photography as no one shared his vision, with it often regarded as a waste of time. Ultimately, he survived and was hired to travel through Japan, Israel and Cuba to take photographs which “capture the essence of a moment, place or space” (Wikipedia, 2017).

A quick stop at the gas station while on the road to New England (left) (Wenders, 1972),  Bright and sunny day driving through the desert, destination: Utah (right) (Wenders, 1977)

I also managed to visit the Tate Britain due to being informed about an exhibition which included ‘Stan Firm Inna Inglan: Black Diaspora in London (1960-70)’ by Black Caribbean and African artists living in England within the late sixties. The title ‘Stan Firm inna Inglan’ was taken from the poem ‘It Dread inna Inglan’ by Linton Kwesi Johnson (Bwoy Ruff, 2006) and was for minorities living in England; for them to understand that they have to stand firm while living in a country that doesn’t want them there because they hold the right to stay whether it is respected or not. A lot of images also focused on the race divide, labelling whites as superior, which is still a potent message in todays society.


Two young black men stood in front of bold words “Black Power” (left) (Jones, 1973-76) and young black girl holding her arms crossed with a deadpan stare across her face (right) (Jones, 1973-1976)

My favourite photograph would have to be the young black lady on the right. Although there isn’t much context to this image, the stern look matched with her folded arms comes across as territorial and firm. Jones documented the disparaged community who managed to make the best of everything despite the constant feeling of “displacement” (Taylor, 2007).



Bwoy Ruff (2006) Linton Kwesi Johnson – It Dread Inna Inglan. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2017).

Jones, C. (1973-76) Untitled, ABP2252. Available at: (Accessed: 18 November 2017).

Jones, C. (1973-76) Untitled, ABP2236. Available at: (Accessed: 18 November 2017).

Soutter, L. (2016) What is the Difference Between an Art Photograph and a Designer Handbag? Available at: (Accessed: 22 November 2017 ).

Soutter, L. (2007) Why Art Photography? Available at: (Accessed: 21 October 2017).

Stan Firm Inna Inglan: Black Diaspora in London (1960-70) [Exhibition]. Tate Britain. 7 April 2017–19 November 2017.

Taylor, R. (2007) Colin Jones and the Black House. Available at: (Accessed: 4 December 2017).

Wenders, W. (1972) On the Road to New England. Available at: (Downloaded: 4 December 2017).

Wenders, W. (1977) Valley of the Gods, Utah. Available at: (Downloaded: 4 December 2017).

Wikipedia (2017) Wim Wenders. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2017).


For the beginning of the second year, I chose to study the subject “Photographic philosophies”. I really enjoy taking photos (when I have the time to) and wanted to become more educated about the topic such as how it began, who some world famous photographers are and how it developed and became modernised throughout society.

Our first task was to bring one of your favourite photographs. I was very confused what to bring for this one. You see, I have a few favourites that I have taken myself but also have a selection of favourite photographers such as Terence Donovan, Ren Hang, Jude Liana, Ivar Wigan, Quentin De Briey and so on. I really examined the idea behind some of their photos and came to the conclusion that Quentin De Briey holds my favourite photograph. It’s a photo he took for @WSJmag but was actually an outtake (unsure as to why). It was photographed in Ladakh, Kahmir India which is why there are some mountains in the background. Seems to be a Indian civilian on the phone casually.


Quentin De Briey – Ladakh, Kashmir 2017

While looking at it, I wrote in my notes “I love the pose, it doesn’t seemed forced. Almost documentary photography because of how natural it looks. Did he ask him to pose this way or was this his natural state when he shot him? He seems so sharp and focused just by the look in his eyes. Content. What was he talking about?
The vibrance of his blue supertech t-shirt in contrast to the off white sand is very nice.
The depth of field (boy to the mountains) is very good. The mountains almost look like paintings. I love it.”

Quentin De Briey almost always uses a film camera to take his photos but I am unsure about this one. Either way, I love the photo. This is the type of photography I would love to take – In the moment.

A history of origin – One of many.

History is described as “narratives of past events, account, tale or story”, “learning or knowing by inquiry; an account of ones inquiries.” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017) whereas Photography is “drawing with light” (‘Photograph’, 2017) as well as “the art or practice of taking and processing photographs” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017). There has definitely been a distinct leap into the development of photography since the 19th century. It has resulted into it having the ability to become modernised, regenerated and diverse.


Blurred and static-like image of the view from the window at Le Gras (Niepce 1926-27)

Nicephore  Niepce managed to produce the oldest surviving camera photograph by applying a “camera obscura onto a 16.2 cm x 20.2 cm pewter plate thinly coated with Bitumen of Judea, a naturally occurring asphalt” (‘View from the Window at Le Gras, 2017) yet the first successful process of photographic printing was created years later in 1839 by Louis Daguerre. The instructions were then only released to the public on the 19th August the same year and this process was recognised as ‘Daguerreotype’ (‘History of Photography’, 2017). Rather than like today, having the ability to access photos from social media, attachments or even bluetooth, in the past the original copy was the only copy. It was not until Henry Fox Talbot created the ‘Calotype’ process in 1841 which was a method that allowed the original photograph to be copied and printed again (‘Calotype’, 2017). This process had a great deal of potential as it established opportunities of mass printing, nonetheless, the quality of print was considered lesser than the daguerreotype which justifies why it was unable to displace it.

Charles Baudelaire stated that Photography should never be considered a creative art form. He declared “photography must, therefore, return to its true duty which is that of handmaid of the arts and sciences” so it can “be the secretary and record-keeper of whomsoever needs absolute material accuracy for professional reasons” (Ryan and Schwartz, 2003). Because photography lacked imagination, it became solely identified as an accessory to writing by cause of obtaining the ability to archive objects accurately.

The creativity that exists within present photography was not explored or even looked into formerly because it was raw, uncut and generally used to document until the 1880’s as it did manage to break its pattern by becoming a practical tool within criminology (‘Mug Shot’, 2017) after Alphonse Bertillon created a documenting system that the rest of Europe would soon embrace. It was then officially used to log mugshots and crime scenes however, there have been photos of prisoners as early as 1843 taken and used by Belgium law enforcement.

alllllAlphonse Bertillon’s glorious self-portrait that invented state-of-the-art mug shots of today (Bertillon, 1888)

However, it is now possible to incorporate inventive applications such as Photoshop or Adobe Premiere to enhance certain aspects of a photograph. The Youtube video (Eliza Zwingenberger, 2015) demonstrates a perfect example of this because it includes a step-by-step process of commonly used tools such as blurring out imperfections and as well as shadow effects.


Dramatic before and after shots of Beyonce (Eliza Zwingenberger, 2015)



Bertillon, A. (1888) Self portrait. Available at: (Downloaded: 2 December 2017).

‘Calotype’ (2017) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 1 December 2017).

Eliza Zwingenberger (2015) Editorial-Beyonce-Before and after editing. Available at: (Accessed: 3 December 2017).

‘History of Photography’ (2017) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 1 December 2017).

Niepce, N. (1926-27) View from the Window at Le Gras. Available at: (Downloaded: 1 December 2017).

Oxford Dictionaries (2017) History. Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2017).

Oxford Dictionaries (2017) Photography. Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2017).

‘Photograph’ (2017) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2017).

Ryan, J. and Schwartz, J. (2003) Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination. London: I.B. Tauris.

‘View from the Window at Le Gras’ (2017) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 1 December 2018).

‘Mug Shot’ (2017) Wikipedia. Available at: (Accessed: 3 December 2017).

How has the interpretation of women through art changed over time?

In the early 18th century, women were constantly portrayed as lifeless, passive creatures that were only recognised by whichever compelling male figure had happened to be associated with them. Till this present day, women are still being considered yielding beings, especially due to their “maternal nature of giving”. This has allowed men to believe that they have a right to take advantage of them without receiving little to no serious consequences. Women as a whole, were only given the legal right to equally vote in 1928, after years of protesting and campaigning (Parliament, 2017). Their voices were not only not recognised as actual voices, but were treated more as background noise, “a person or thing considered to be irrelevant or incidental to the main issue or situation” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017). Men began to realise the power that came from a woman’s mind and made history by allowing women to think and be viewed as equal rather than using them as what Saylor Academy’s (2017) research report described as “instruments for men’s happiness”. Since then, women have managed to be taken more seriously as well as excel in other areas than just the bedroom or kitchen. We now have female painters, workers and designers. 

My research within this essay has been based on the opinions of women from the beginning of the enlightenment period (Wikipedia, 2017). The enlightenment period was basically what established the Eurocentric mindset that still has a hold of the world. European men had jurisdiction over everything. They would observe, catalogue and publish their ideas of the perfect world, persuading others that they too needed to live a Eurocentric way of life, instilling their opinions into everything. Indigenous practices from different cultures were considered “wrong” at this time and that the way of their living was something that shouldn’t be celebrated or revered.
“Art is a product of its time” (Santa Cruz, K. 2017) Art is created by the social, economical and political issues surrounding it’s time period. The female nude became an iconic image within the Western culture. Their concept of what a Eurocentric women should be was all that was considered normal and prevailed for a great deal of time in art. venusslastvega

An early example of the nude painting is Venus and the Lute Player (1565–1570) by Titian.
Wikipedia (2017) provides information claiming that Titian was a very versatile Italian painter whose work can be considered the key influencer for the future generations of Western art.

Marina Abramović is a Yugoslavia-born performance artist that loves to challenge the relationship between the audience and the performer. The video (Marina Abramovic Institute 2016), Abramovic describes ‘Rhythm 0’ (1974) as being one of her is one of her most acknowledged projects as she completely pushed her body to it’s limit. It was an interactive instillation in which she allowed herself to be passive and the audience to be in control. She decided to take a passive role because she wanted to achieve the recognition of just another object rather than another person, with thoughts and feelings. 72 other objects were set out onto a table in front of where she stood. The audience were allowed to do whatever they pleased, and could even shoot and kill her with the pistol she had put down if that is what they so desired. Abramović’s aim was to see what the public were “really about” while she stood still, lifeless like a puppet for 6 hours each day. At the beginning of the project, she recalled the crowd being very shy and sweet but as the days went on, it rapidly grew into aggressive, inhuman behaviour. They would cut her skin with the knives, pull the thorns out of the roses and pin them into her arms and rip off her clothes with no question but once she would start to move around again after her shift was over, the audience would run scarce due to the fear of confrontation and coming to terms with what they had let themselves do to her. Her work revealed the terrible side of  humanity, showing how fast a person can want to hurt you under favourable circumstances. It exhibited how easy it was to dehumanise someone who would not argue or fight back and how much you can get away with when there are no repercussions.
Such questions arise after this piece was created; if she were male rather than female, would the audience have reacted in the same way? Does this suggest that they would have stopped causing her distress if she just asked? And that consequences are needed when allowing people to do what they want so they do not go “too far”. Maybe this factor is what pushed them to do such things. Such similarities can be recognised from nude paintings of women dating back to the 1800’s.

The way in which women are now anticipated has definitely changed in comparison to the 18th century. Rather than a woman being nude, she is now also naked; bare and explicit. The word nude has been defined as “a naked human figure, typically as the subject of a painting, sculpture, or photograph.” (Oxford Dictionary, 2017) whereas naked has been defined as “(of a person or part of the body) without clothes.” or “(especially of feelings or behaviour) expressed openly; undisguised.” (Oxford Dictionary, 2017).
John Berger, the author of the book “Ways of Seeing” (1972), highlights the hidden meanings behind the nude females look. The gaze of the female subject within paintings are often there to symbolise how women have involuntarily become objective. Their eyes meet the viewers, as they glance out of their canvas and begin to acknowledge them in the construct of their glare. But is this for the satisfaction of the audience or for the painter? Art allows you to understand the world view and reality of that particular artist.. However, when we read or view art; Berger argues that there key assumptions that influence how the work is understood. These influences include beauty, truth, genius, civilisation, form, status and taste. Somethings have been designed so well and thought through too thoroughly that there has to be a reason behind it just like there has to be a reason as to why the nude female has been positioned this same way constantly throughout art-history? When you think about who have always commissioned and consumed the art prehistorically, it has been men. And it has always been men, only up until recently.

Looking back into the Eurocentric approach of things, the nude painting was definitely affected by this. Not only has it made the female body a much bigger deal than it needed to be but it has consistently displayed the same type of body. That constant of a carbon copy body has now manifested into becoming the optimal body. It was only until recently that artists began to challenge the way in which the female body was perceived. An example of this is Lucien Freud’s painting Benefits Supervisor Sleeping (1995). He worked with an obese, naked woman to create this piece because he wanted to paint people “not because of what they are like, not exactly in spite of what they are like, but how they happen to be” (Lucien Freud, 1995). Work like this has helped us as people because we have come to accept various body shapes and sizes that have existed in this world the whole time.

After taking a visit to The National Portrait Gallery, you were able to distinguish the difference between the nude female and the nude male. The nude male, although he is uncovered and bare, revealing his true naked self, he still has and will be recognised as capable, athletic and brave who can typically be strong through anything. John Berger was definitely able to recognise the distinction between the two and acknowledged this with a quote; “A man’s presence suggests what he is capable of doing to you or for you. By contrast, a woman’s presence . . . defines what can and cannot be done to her.” (Berger, 1972, pg.45-46.) Although they are both naked, one almost always managed to look more captivating and hold the viewer with her stronger gaze, “hinting” that she wanted to be controlled whereas the male would assert themselves by imposing their powers over others.

Guerrilla Girls (1985) found and stated that 5% of artists within art galleries are women whereas 85% of nude paintings have female subjects. They created their most iconic coloured poster using the famous ‘Odalisque and slave’ (1842) painting by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and placed a gorilla’s face over the head to almost disguise her. Their aim was to highlight the sexual discrimination and sexualisation of women that exists within the art industry, asking if they had to be naked to be allowed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This suggested that their bodies were the only things that mattered about them and were most captivating when they were bare, not their talent. Since then, women in paintings are now no longer naked all the time, in fact some are even portrayed the same way a man would be, but the over sexualisation of women’s bodies from the past has affected the equality divide between men and women. Men mean business, whereas women are there for whatever you desire. When men reveal their bare chests, they are deemed as sexy, confident and cool but when women reveal their naked chests, they are seen as whores with easy-access, who are open for invitation.

The main problem with the way women have been perceived in the past is that they only had two options of what they could be in life; these choices were either whores or domesticated wives and/or mothers (Saylor Academy, 2017). This limited women in being taken seriously or even identified as in charge or leaders. Feminism has been described as “the advocacy of women’s rights on the ground of the equality of the sexes.” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017). The feminist art movement appeared within the late 1960’s. Suzanne Lacy explained the goal of feminist art being to “influence cultural attitudes and transform stereotypes”. Feminism has helped women to no longer be bound to what they do or have done but shows how they are as people, just like men. Women artists have begun to emerge by taking advantage of the nude female body, to make statements projecting how much more in control they all are of themselves now in comparison the 18th century. It creates a bigger statement because of how controversial it is for women to use their bodies as tool, the same thing that men have been doing all these years.

Rihanna Fenty has become a fashion icon through her brave and risky choices, truly showing that to be a woman, specifically a woman of colour, you can do whatever you please. She considers herself a feminist (Instagram, 2017) and plays with her vanity rather than brushing it away. She has over 53 million followers on Instagram and has built a creative platform which explores art through her.


To conclude this essay and to be brutally honest, it will take a very long time for women to be viewed as completely equal to men in any category by every single person in this world. There has been a certain type of misrepresentation of women that has been going around for centuries that we are still trying to diminish and get rid of till this day. Although we have made the progress of having different types of women in art, whether they are the artists themselves or the subject, they are no longer forced to be at the service of men unless they want to be.”Men act, women appear.” Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. (Berger, 1972, p.75). Women used to do everything in life for men because her own sense of being herself had been overthrown by a sense of being appreciated as herself by the man. We have been able to build a sense of self which doesn’t require the approval of our bodies by men. Instead our minds and thoughts will be recognised.

Catalogue Design Rationale.

My catalogue design was inspired by the way women were represented in the art industry. I wanted to highlight the obvious equality divide that still stands between a man and woman’s being. After doing some research (Mashable, 2015), the colour Rose Quartz had been voted and recognised as the national colour of gender equality of 2016. I decided to choose this for my catalogue design but wasn’t sure about using it completely because of the still standing issue of fairness between men and women. To display this, I decided to cover an even amount of pages in Rose Quartz and while leaving the rest in white. I wanted this matter to be visually suggested but also put in text because it has the ability to enhance my voice and engagement in this topic.

Rather than approaching this design in a kooky way, I wanted to take an an element of influence from newspaper layouts, such as the columns and the seriousness outlook. Using the fonts “American Purpose” and “Helvetic light” were great for this basic design I was going for.

I wanted a strong minimalist side to this design that could be constant to represent the similarity of the nude female portrayal being uninterrupted. The only pages that would break this continual pattern would be the visual essay, the cover and the most detailed essay which focuses on the artists who have challenged and questioned the barriers of how women have been depicted through art overtime. The cover includes two famous paintings, “Reclining Nymph” (1530-1534) by Lucas Cranach the Elder and “Venus of Urbino” (1538) by Titian. They have been edited to throw up hand gestures with their faces covering their vaginas and breasts. I wanted this to demonstrate that through art have women found how to use the female nude to their advantage.


Cranach‭, ‬L‭. (‬1530-1534‭) ‬Venus of Urbino‭ [‬Oil on panel‭]. ‬Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum‭.‬

Mashable‭ (‬2015‭) ‬Pantone selects two colors of the year to represent gender equality‭. ‬Available at‭: ‬http‭://‬‭/‬pantone-2016-color-picks‭/#‬89n_JDkzruq3‭ (‬Accessed‭: ‬25‭ ‬April 2017‭).‬

Titian‭. (‬1538‭) ‬Venus of Urbino‭ [‬Oil on canvas‭]. ‬Uffizi Gallery‭.‬


The Tate Britain located in London, has been holding a phenomenal walk-through exhibition to celebrate and discuss 500 years worth of British art. The exhibition consists of work ranging from the 15th century to this current day. It includes a spectrum of paintings and installations to sculptures and photography as well as many famous artists like Gerald Leslie Brockhurst and Edward Burra.

I decided to focus on the 1940’s era of art which had a lot of influence from the Holocaust as well as the second world war particularly the painting ‘Bomb Falling into Water’ (1942) by Leonard Rosoman.

Bomb Falling into Water 1942 by Leonard Rosoman 1913-2012
The title of the painting itself is pretty self-explanatory as Rosoman illustrated a bomb falling into the Thames river which is placed in London and into the water docks. He had a firsthand experience of the war as he was a member of the national fire service which can definitely be seen in this painting. Not only does the painting display the raw emotion of his experience through the limiting colour choice but can be seen through the amount of impact he placed on his brushes to create certain streaks and patterns. The ripples in the water show how big these bombs were, creating deep splashes from each individual blow and the colouring of the sky suggests there was a huge amount of bombs, filling the sky with fog with the aftermath of your vision being blurred. With each technique Rosoman used in this piece, it created a very lifelike, realistic look, making the viewer really feel the effects of the war on his painting style.

Although there were other pieces of interesting work that had also been affected by that chilling time period of war, Rosoman’s work stuck out to me the most. His painting caused me to relive a moment I had never experienced, which is what art is meant to do.